Testosterone

Identification

Name
Testosterone
Accession Number
DB00624 / 3XMK78S47O
Groups
Androderm
Description

Testosterone is a steroid intercourse hormone found in each ladies and men. In men, testosterone is produced basically by using the Leydig (interstitial) cells of the testes whilst stimulated by means of luteinizing hormone (LH). It capabilities to stimulate spermatogenesis, promote bodily and purposeful maturation of spermatozoa, hold accessory organs of the male reproductive tract, support development of secondary sexual characteristics, stimulate growth and metabolism at some point of the frame and impact mind development via stimulating sexual behaviors and sexual drive. In women, testosterone is produced by using the ovaries (25%), adrenals (25%) and through peripheral conversion from androstenedione (50%). Testerone in ladies capabilities to keep libido and widespread wellness. Testosterone exerts a bad comments mechanism on pituitary launch of LH and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Testosterone can be similarly transformed to dihydrotestosterone or estradiol relying on the tissue.

Pharmacology

Pharmacodynamics

Testosterone is a steroid hormone from the androgen group. Testosterone is primarily secreted from the testes of males. In females, it is produced in the ovaries, adrenal glands and by conversion of adrostenedione in the periphery. It is the principal male sex hormone and an anabolic steroid. In both males and females, it plays key roles in health and well-being. Examples include enhanced libido, energy, immune function, and protection against osteoporosis. On average, the adult male body produces about twenty times the amount of testosterone than an adult female's body does.

Indication

To be used as hormone replacement or substitution of diminished or absent endogenous testosterone. Use in males: For management of congenital or acquired hypogonadism, hypogonadism associated with HIV infection, and male climacteric (andopause). Use in females: For palliative treatment of androgen-responsive, advanced, inoperable, metastatis (skeletal) carcinoma of the breast in women who are 1-5 years postmenopausal; testosterone esters may be used in combination with estrogens in the management of moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms associated with menopause in women who do not respond to adequately to estrogen therapy alone.

Action

The effects of testosterone in humans and other vertebrates occur by way of two main mechanisms: by activation of the androgen receptor (directly or as DHT), and by conversion to estradiol and activation of certain estrogen receptors. Free testosterone (T) is transported into the cytoplasm of target tissue cells, where it can bind to the androgen receptor, or can be reduced to 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) by the cytoplasmic enzyme 5α-reductase. DHT binds to the same androgen receptor even more strongly than T, so that its androgenic potency is about 2.5 times that of T. The T-receptor or DHT-receptor complex undergoes a structural change that allows it to move into the cell nucleus and bind directly to specific nucleotide sequences of the chromosomal DNA. The areas of binding are called hormone response elements (HREs), and influence transcriptional activity of certain genes, producing the androgen effects.