Interferon alfacon-1 is a recombinant non-naturally occurring kind-I interferon. The 166-amino acid series of Interferon alfacon-1 changed into derived by means of scanning the sequences of numerous herbal interferon alpha subtypes and assigning the most frequently determined amino acid in each corresponding position. four additional amino acid modifications had been made to facilitate the molecular creation, and a corresponding artificial DNA sequence changed into built the use of chemical synthesis method. Interferon alfacon-1 differs from interferon alfa-2b at 20/166 amino acids (88% homology), and assessment with interferon-beta suggests identity at over 30% of the amino acid positions. Interferon alfacon-1 is produced in Escherichia coli (E. coli) cells which have been genetically altered by using insertion of a synthetically constructed sequence that codes for Interferon alfacon-1. prior to final purification, Interferon alfacon-1 is permitted to oxidize to its local country, and its final purity is completed by means of sequential passage over a sequence of chromatography columns. This protein has a molecular weight of 19,434 daltons.
Upregulates the expression of MHC I proteins, allowing for increased presentation of peptides derived from viral antigens. This enhances the activation of CD8+ T cells that are the precursors for cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and makes the macrophage a better target for CTL-mediated killing. Interferon alpha also induce the synthesis of several key antiviral mediators, including 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase (2'-5' A synthetase) and protein kinase R.
For the treatment of hairy cell leukemia, malignant melanoma, and AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma
Interferon alpha binds to type I interferon receptors (IFNAR1 and IFNAR2c) which, upon dimerization, activate two Jak (Janus kinase) tyrosine kinases (Jak1 and Tyk2). These transphosphorylate themselves and phosphorylate the receptors. The phosphorylated INFAR receptors then bind to Stat1 and Stat2 (signal transducers and activators of transcription) which dimerize and activate multiple (~100) immunomodulatory and antiviral proteins. Interferon alpha binds less stably to type I interferon receptors than interferon beta. The resulting actions include gene transcription, inhibition of cellular growth, alteration of the state of cellular differentiation, interference with oncogene expression, alteration of cell surface antigen expression, increasing phagocytic activity of macrophages, and augmentation of the cytotoxicity of lymphocytes for target cells.