Human serum albumin is the primary protein present in human blood plasma. the main characteristic of albumin is to maintain the oncotic stress of blood [A33706]. It binds to water, cations (which includes Ca2+, Na+ and k+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin, thyroxine (T4) and prescription drugs (along with barbiturates). Albumin represents about 50% of the total protein content in wholesome humans [A40060]. Human albumin is a small globular protein (molecular weight: 66.5 kDa), such as a single chain of 585 amino acids organized in 3 repeated homolog domain names (sites I, II, and III). every domain accommodates separate sub-domains (A and B) [A40060]. there are numerous preparations of albumin which are nicely established and widely available in the clinical putting [L3108], [L3109], [L3101]. also referred to as _Albuminex_ 5% or 25%, one logo of human serum albumin is prepared from the pooled plasma people donors in FDA-licensed centers in the US [F229]. this is a biosimilar drug to existing human serum albumin and was accredited for a organic license at both five% and 25% concentrations with the aid of the FDA on June 21, 2018 [L3101].
Serum albumin is a soluble, monomeric protein essential for maintaining and regulating the colloidal osmotic pressure of blood. It is utilized to increase the circulating plasma volume, which reduces hemoconcentration and blood viscosity. Albumin is also used as a transport protein that binds naturally occurring, therapeutic and toxic materials and drugs in the circulation [F229]. Human albumin makes up over 50% the total protein in the plasma and represents about 10% of protein synthesis activity by the liver. Human Albumin 25% has a corresponding hyper-oncotic effect [F230].
Albuminex solution is indicated for adults and children for hypovolemia, ascites, hypoalbuminemia including from burns, acute nephrosis, acute respiratory distress syndrome and cardipulmonary bypass [F229].
The main function of albumin results from its contribution to plasma colloid oncotic pressure and transport function [F230]. Albumin stabilizes circulating blood volume and carries hormones, enzymes, medicines, and toxins. Other physiological functions include antioxidant properties, free radical scavenging, in addition to maintenance capillary membrane integrity [F230]. Exogenously administered albumin increases the oncotic pressure of the intravascular system, moving fluids from the interstitial space, thereby decreasing edema and increasing the circulating blood volume. The increase in volume reduces the concentration and viscosity of blood in patients with decreased circulating blood volume while maintaining cardiac output in shock. In dehydrated patients, negligible effects exist on circulating blood volume. In addition to the above albumin replaces protein in patients with hypoproteinemia until the cause of the deficiency can be determined [L3104]. This drug has thousands of endogenous and exogenous targets. Human albumin also binds and carries a plethora of hydrophobic molecules, such as endogenous (i.e., cholesterol, fatty acids, bilirubin, thyroxine) or exogenous substances (for example, drugs and toxins), transition metal ions, as well as gas (nitric oxide [NO]), with resulting implications for their solubilisation, transport, metabolism, and detoxification [A40060].